an array of ecosystems of lowland Terai and the nearby foothills. TAL contains eleven Nepalese and Indian Trans-border protected areas and tehy have the potentiality of being connected with biological corridors. Linking protected areas is imperative to allow genetic exchange between tow or more small, isolated populations of long ranging animals such as the tigers. TAL is stretched along the Nepal-India border from Nepal's Parsa Wildlife Rerserve in the east to India's Rajaji-Borbet National Park in the west. TAL also forms part of the Chitwan-Parsa-Valmiki(India) Tiger Conservation Unit(TCU). The objective is to manage the entire tiger range as a single unit. Moreover, part of TAL also falls within Terai-Duar savana Grasslands(Global 2000 Eco-regions #91 postulated by WWF).
The Terai Arc Landscape is endowed with rich and varied biodiversity, and supports endangered mammals such as the Bengal tiger, Greater one-horned rhinoverous, wild Asian elephant, swamp deer, hispid hare, sloth bear, wild water, buffalo, black buck and the four-horned antelope. Other important ungulates include Gaur, blue bull, chital, samber, hog deer, wild boar and porcupine- all being the major prey species of tiger. Over 500 species of avifauna conssiteing fo endangered Bengal florican, lesser florican, sarus crane, black stork and giant pied-hornbill have been reported in the area. Rivers and wetlands in TAL are also rich in faunal diversity and support the endangered Gangetic dolphin and Gharial crocodile. Moreover, Marsh mugger, otter, over 125 species of fishes, wide range of amphibians, and unknown nuber fresh water crustaceans make these ecosystems rich and diverse. Common cobra, krait, rat snake, garden snake and python are the common snakes observed in the area.
The vegetation ranges from the early successional grasslands in the alluvial floodplains of Koshi,Narayani, Rapti, Reu Babai, Karnali, and Mahakali River systems to the climax stage of sal forest. The riverine forests, mized hardwood and Khair-sissoo forests, wooded grasslands, and phanta(grassland) are among important vegetation types in TAL. All these habitats provide excellent refuge for tiger and its prey species. Common tree species include Shorea robusta, Terminalia sps., Mallotus phillippinensis, Litsea monopatala, Trewia nudiflora, Bombax ceiba, Ehretia laevis, Carrya arboria, Dillenia pentagyna, Buchhanania latifolia.Lagerstomia parvifloria, Adina cardifolia, Dalbergia sissoo, Atacia catechu, Holoptelia integrifolia etc. Mainshrub species consists of Murraya koenigii, M.paniculata, Kolebrookia oppoositifolia, Callicarpa macrophylla, Cledodendron viscosum and Coffea bengalensis. Similarly, common grass species recorded from the area include Saccharum spontaneum, S. Bengalensis, S. arundinaceum, Phragmites karka, Arundo donax, Navenga porphyrocoma, Imperta cylindrica, Cyanodon dactylon, Eulalopsis binnata and Vetiveria zizanoides, Circium wallichii, Ageratum conizoides and Truimfetta sps. are importants herbaceous plants in the area. A wide range of climbers enrich riverine and sal forest. Wetland species include Hydrilla verticillata, Ceratolphyllum demersum, Potamogetonsp., Utricularia aurea, Axolla imbricata, Pistia stratiotes, Acorns calamus, Arundinella nepalensis, Hygrophylla auriculata, Oryza rufipogon, Typha angustifolia etc.
The Teai Arc Landscape(TAL) program jointly implemented by DNPWC, the Department of Forests (DoF). and WWF involves governmental and non-governmental organizations, partner conservation organizations, local people, and a host of other stakeholders. The goal of TAL is to link 11 Nepalese and Indian Trans-borders protected areas with biological corridors. The Program not only aims to provide habitat for the long-term survival of wildlife species in TAL but also to improve the socio-economic conditions of local people through economic conditions of local people through economic opportunities.